The following are selected Articles, Book Reviews, Briefs, Commentaries, Essays, Notes, Notifications, Pamphlets, Reports, Research, and Working papers on a variety of Black economics topics.

Brief Essay: “A GD Saturday Can Kickstart Reparations” (June 2, 2023) (260 KB) [AGDSATCKR.pdf] Describes an idea around which Black Americans can unify to kickstart Reparations and build a long-term and strategic Reparations plan.

Analysis Brief: “South Asian Immigration: Implications for Black America” (May 26, 2023) (232 KB) [BSAST052623.pdf] Recounts the socioeconomic support extended by Black Americans to early South Asian immigrants; expresses the recognition and concern that that support has all been forgotten by South Asians, who are stealthily climbing to the top of the US socioeconomic heap; and suggests a Black American response.

Commentary: “Don’t Ask the Wrong Question about Raising the FDC” (May 12, 2023) (255 KB) [ATWQ051223.pdf] It invites interrogation of the background and rationale for US (Federal) Government debt and continuing requirements to raise the Federal Debt Ceiling (FDC). When enquiring about the FDC, we should not fail to consider the need for broader change.

Commentary: “Frogs: Reaching a Deadly Boiling Point Via Chilling Realities” (April 28, 2023) (242 KB) [FRADBPVCR.pdf] Connects frog symbolism and the “boiling frog syndrome” to the Black American condition, but explains that an escape route is forthcoming.

Analysis Brief: “Economics Before Education?” (April 14, 2023) (245 KB) [EBEFOREE.pdf] Offers an analysis of a well-known pundit’s proposed approach/plan for Black America’s path to power and self-determination.

Brief Essay: “Self-Enslavement: The Psychoeconomics of Sports Games” (April 7, 2023) (254 KB) [SETPOSG040723.pdf] On the heels of March Madness 2023, this brief essay examines Black America’s unconscious self-enslavement to sports games and our consequent absence from the more important strategic games that shape socioeconomic outcomes. Also see a response to this essay from Mr. Bennett Johnson.

Analysis Brief: “Black America’s Consumption, Income, and Wealth” (March 31, 2023) (264 KB) [CIW033123.pdf] Building on earlier work, considers Black America’s income, wealth, and consumption gaps versus non-Black Americans; pinpoints well-known actions that could reduce these gaps; and urges more direct action by Black Americans to reduce the gaps.

Analysis Brief: “Aiding and Abetting: Contributing to Our Own Demise” (March 24, 2023) (293 KB) [AAA032423.pdf] An analysis of certain unintended consequences to which Black athletes contribute when attending small town colleges/universities that have highly ranked football and basketball programs.

Commentary: “A Doubly Rigged Game” (March 17, 2023) (205 KB) [ADRG.pdf] Explains how Black Americans engage in a doubly rigged US economic and financial game that is very difficult to win, yet we continue to participate in the game. Suggests that alternatives should be considered.

Analysis Brief: “Monopolists Will Discriminate” (March 3, 2023) (244 KB) [MWD.pdf] Provides selected evidence that public monopolies in the form of municipal police departments are likely to exhibit practices that are driven by the local political economy, but that also reflect racial discrimination.

Analysis Brief: “Cutting Lifelines” (February 10, 2023) (343 KB) [CL.pdf] Highlights Black America’s heavy economic dependence on government and how this may affect our willingness to move from talk to action on achieving self-determination.

Commentary: “The Economics of the Tyre Nichols Case” (February 3, 2023) (236 KB) [TEOTTNC.pdf] Defines the loop in which Black America is ensconced and which is replicated by the Tyre Nichols case; analyzes the special economic implications of the case; and characterizes the future if Black America fails to identify and implement a strategy to exit the loop. Also consider Baba Asinia Lukata Chikuyu’s Response to this commentary.

Commentary: “The Military Too!” (January 27, 2023) (215 KB) [TMT.pdf] This commentary reinforces the fact that Black Americans may benefit from war and military service at the margin. However, we are not benefiting from DEI (Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion) to the extent that we should through active-duty military service where we are grossly underrepresented as officers. Also see Co-Contributor Lindsey “Rob” Robinson’s Response to this commentary. He provides “doable recommendations” that can ameliorate existing problems with identifying, retaining, and promoting Black officers in the US military.

Commentary: “What Manner of Mind?” (January 20, 2023) (224 KB) [WMOM.pdf] The commentary explores the Western World mind that has generated vast  material wealth and power. But it has also produced untold atrocities the end of which remain far in the future. It suggests that the world should embrace a widespread participatory approach to shaping a humanistic path forward.

Commentary:  “Guaranteed Prosperity” (January 6, 2023)  (254 KB)  [GUARPROSP.pdf]   Integrates two of our very recent commentaries and suggests a direct path to prosperity for Black Americans if we exercise courage, faith, unity, and work.

Commentary:  “The Declining Significance of Protests” (December 23, 2022)  (232 KB)  [TDSP.pdf]  Discusses how traditional protests (marches, sit-ins, etc.) are increasingly unimpactful in resolving socioeconomic inequalities, and how the “nuclear option” (sit-down strikes) may be lost as an option over the next ten years. Economic boycotts are not discussed.

Brief Essay:  Counterfactuals  (December 9, 2022)  (303 KB)  [COUNTERFACTUALS.pdf] This essay urges those who analyze Black American inequality gaps to focus on a critical counterfactual that may provide a solid comparison against which all of the gaps should be weighed.

Note:  Mini Dataset: Socioeconomic and Political Profiles of I-20X States”  (December 2, 2022)  (227 KB)  [MDSSPPI20X.pdf]

Commentary:  “Adding ‘People’”  (November 25, 2022)  (227 KB)  [ADDPEOP.pdf]  Discusses the importance of Black Americans informing interested parties that we are a “People,” which carries significant and favorable implications.

Commentary:  “The Door is Open: Pass H.R. 40 and S. 40 Now!”  (November 18, 2022)  (229 KB)  [PHR40S40NOW.pdf]  Urges a Democratically controlled US Congress to pass Reparations Bills in both houses before the party loses its majority status.

Analysis Brief:  A Clearer View  (November 11, 2022)  (271 KB)  [ACV.pdf]  This analysis brief places US military spending under a microscope and characterizes the nature of that spending, reveals the business leaders and firms that elicit and benefit from the spending, and shows that Black Americans benefit minimally from military spending.

Analysis Brief:  “Is Mississippi Configured for Black Self-Determination?”  (October 28, 2022)  (264 KB)  [IMCFBSD.pdf]  Also, please see a related Response (120 KB).

Commentary:  “Are Black American ‘Self-Determiners’ ‘Liberals’ or ‘Conservatives’?”  (October 14, 2022)  (234 KB) [ABASDLOC.pdf]  Offers insights on the underlying characteristics of Black American “Self-Determiners” and what this means.

Analysis Brief:  Why is Black American Homeownership Constrained?”  (October 7, 2022)  (310 KB)  [WBAHC.pdf]  Provides an analysis of why Black Americans’ homeownership rate is well below the 50 percent mark.

Brief Essay:  Welcoming Black South Asians into the Black World”  (September 30, 2022) (246 KB)  [WBSAIBW.pdf]  This essay highlights the relationship between Black Americans and Black South Asians. It argues that significant long-term benefits could accrue if the three billion global Black population formed an alliance.

Brief Essay:  “The Black Economics of Uncertainty”  (September 9, 2022)  (261 KB)  [TBEOU.pdf]  Discusses how the multiplicity of uncertainties of Black American life in the US compound to affect our well-being adversely.

Commentary:  “Never Say Never!”  (September 2, 2022)  (250 KB)  [NSN.pdf]  Is intended as a warning to Black Americans to prepare for potential unfavorable conditions that could unfold in the US in response to increasing fragmentation and political strife.

Analysis Brief:  “The Essential Role of Black Banks in Black Economic Development”  (August 26, 2022)  (314 KB)  [TERBED.pdf]  Provides a succinct explanation of how banking institutions generally operate from a consumer perspective, and highlights how Black banks can accelerate Black economic development.

Commentary:  “A ‘Greater Fool’ Economy”  (August 12, 2022)  (212 KB)  [AGFE.pdf]  Discusses the nature and attitudes of many investors, especially with respect to certain types of financial and nonfinancial assets. 

Commentary:  “Concerns about CHIPS”  (August 5, 2022)  (241 KB)  [CACHIPS.pdf]  This commentary highlights provisions of a new law that, inter alia, provides funding for growing the semiconductor industry and boosting science and technology human capital development efforts in the US.

Commentary: “Fortuitous Unity and Trust”  (July 29, 2022)  (247 KB)  [FUT.pdf]  Explains fortuitous conditions under which Black Americans may enter deeper unity and trust, which represent a prerequisite for success in achieving Black liberty.

Commentary:  “Black Americans’ International Relations”  (June 22, 2022) (239 KB)  [BAIR.pdf]  Elaborates on Brittney Griner’s incarceration in Russia and the inability of Black American to intervene. 

Commentary:  “Black America is No. 1”  (July 22, 2022)  (239 KB)   [BAN1.pdf]  Shows that categories in which Black America is No. 1 are not all favorable.

Commentary:  “Another CWBA Problem”  (July 15,  2022)  (275 KB)    [CWBAPROB.pdf] Explains shortcomings of Ice Cube’s efforts to configure an economic development program for Black America.

Commentary:  “Mindset”   (July 8, 2022)  (223 KB)  [MINDSET.pdf]  Offers guidance to Black Americans on the type of perspective (mindset) that should be adopted as we gain greater control of directing our economic activity.

Analysis Brief:  “Black Americans and Public BCCCTs”  (July 1, 2022)  (323 KB)  [BCCCTS.pdf]  Raises a very important question of Black American participation on public boards, commissions, committees, and councils at all levels of government.

Commentary:  “More on Food Inflation”  (June 24, 2022)  (319 KB)  [MOFI.pdf]  Follows up an earlier release on the current bout of inflation and provides additional analysis.

Commentary:  “To Be Forearmed”  (June 10, 2022)  (267 KB)  [TBFOREARMED.pdf]  Discuss expectations concerning food inflation in the US.

Commentary: “A Fundamental Misunderstanding”  (June 3, 2022)  (229 KB)  [AFUNDMIS.pdf]  Accuses the California Task Force on Reparations of reflecting a fundamental misunderstanding of Reparations requirements in their recent report.

Commentary:  “The ‘Great Replacement’ or ‘Great Elimination’ Theories”  (May 28, 2022)  (235 KB)  [GRT-GET.pdf]  Argues that White Supremacists’ may fly a Great Replacement Theory flag while actually supporting a Great Elimination Theory.

Commentary:  Learn to Hate”  (May 17, 2022)  (232 KB)  [LTH.pdf]  Seeks to convince Black Americans that it is in our best interest to learn to hate.  

Analysis Brief:  “Black Names in the Halls of Congress”  (May 13, 2022)  (357 KB)  [BNITHC.pdf]  Using “Black names,” explores selected evidence concerning  members of the Congressional Black Caucus employment of Black American staffers.

Analysis Brief: “More Evidence Concerning CBC Members’ Ineffectiveness” (May 6, 2022) (295 KB) [MECCBCMI.pdf]

Commentary: “Planning Our Rise” (April 29, 2022) (236 KB) [POR.pdf]

Brief Analysis: “Black American Taxes: Comparing What We Pay” (April 15, 2022) (331 KB) [BATCWWP.pdf]

Brief Analysis: “Housing for Families in Poverty: An Alternative Paradigm” (April 8, 2022) (238 KB) [HFFIP.pdf]

Commentary: “The Real Insanity of ‘March Madness’” (April 1, 2022) (233 KB) [RIMM.pdf]

Special Release: “Law and Economics: Excerpts from a Letter Concerning Judge Ketanji Brown Jackson” (March 22, 2022) (491 KB) [LAEEFL.pdf]

Commentary: “Welcome to More Misery” (March 18, 2022) (201 KB) [WMM.pdf]

Commentary: “What Should Black Americans Do About Climate Change?” (March 11, 2022) (261 KB) [WSBADACC.pdf]

Brief Working Paper: “Are Black Americans Rational Economic Agents? The Case of General Sales and Property Taxes” (March 4, 2022) (360 KB) [ABAREA.pdf]

Commentary: “Dark Clouds or Sunshine? The Black Economics of War” (February 25, 2022) (241 KB) [DCSTBEOW.pdf]

Commentary: “Acting on Adverse Redistricting: ‘One Thing Leads to Another’” (February 18, 2022) (275 KB) [AOROTLTA.pdf]

Notification: “Cleaning Our Way to Black Liberation” (February 18, 2022) (202 KB) [COWTBL.pdf]

Commentary: “Reparations and Procrastination” (February 4, 2022) (244 KB) [RANDP.pdf]

* In connection with this commentary on Reparations, Mr. Bennett Johnson of Evanston, Illinois submitted “The Freedom Plan – A Proposal for Reparations” (February 5, 2022) (42 KB) [BJFP.pdf]. This submission does not necessarily reflect the thoughts or opinions of

Commentary: “What Can Three Black Economists Do?” (January 21, 2022) (428 KB) [WC3BED.pdf]

Note: “Is Black America Progressing?” (January 14, 2022) (435 KB) [IBAP.pdf]

Essay: “A Historical Critique of Black American Leadership” (December 21, 2021) (602 KB) [LEADERSHIP.pdf]

Commentary: “Wisdom, Ability, Incentives” (October 22, 2021) (419 KB) [WAI.pdf]

Essay: “Government Expenditure and a Decision to Emigrate” (October 15, 2021) (485 KB) [GEDE.pdf]

Commentary: “How Can There Be Joy?” (October 8, 2021) (392 KB) [HCTBJ.pdf]

Commentary: Rob Robinson’s Commentary on September 30, 2021, New York Times Article: “More Than Half of Police Killings are Mislabeled, New Study Says” (October 1, 2021) (392 KB) [PWABMW.pdf]

Commentary: “How Long is ‘Not Long’?” (September 24, 2021) (387 KB) [HLINL.pdf]

Essay: “Drivers But Not Beneficiaries of Health Output” (September 17, 2021) (414 KB) [DBNBHO.pdf]

Commentary: “Homogeneity, Heterogeneity, Discrimination, and Reparations” (August 27, 2021) (394 KB) [HHDR.pdf]

Essay: “Executing Existing Power” (August 17, 2021) (416 KB) [EEP.pdf]

Commentary: “What Do Black Americans Know About Climate Change?” (August 11, 2021) (398 KB) [BAACC.pdf]

Commentary: “CBC Not Positioned to Optimize Black America’s Well-Being” (August 2, 2021) (378 KB) [CBCNOTPOS.pdf]

Commentary: “Racism in Death” (July 26, 2021) (409 KB) [RID.pdf]

Commentary: “Should the Late George Floyd Be a Black American Hero?” (July 19, 2021) (402 KB) [SGFBAH.pdf]

Report Brief: “Black American Employment Representativeness” (July 4, 2021) (447 KB) [REPRESENTATIVENESS.pdf]

Essay: “Cherry Picking the SS COLA and More” (May 21, 2021) (438 KB) [CPSSCOLAM.pdf]

Report Brief: “Seven Truths About Black American Billionaires” (May 14, 2021) (449 KB) [STABAB.pdf]

Essay: “New Black-NonBlack Wealth Inequality Metrics” (May 7, 2021) (395 KB) [NBNBWIMS.pdf]

Commentary: “Work Awaits Black Studies Programs” (April 17, 2021) (369 KBS) [WABSP.pdf]

Commentary: “Everybody: Do Something!” (April 8, 2021) (389 KBS) [EDS.pdf]

Commentary: “Agenda Setting” (March 29, 2021) (383 KB) [AGENDASETTING.pdf]

Pamphlet: “Love and BlackEconomics” (March 25, 2021) (436 KB) [LOVEANDBE.pdf]

Commentary: “$27 Million is Not Enough” (March 13, 2021) (424 KB) [27MINE.pdf]

Commentary: “What Does ARPA 2021 Mean for Black Americans?” (March 12, 2021) (369 KB) [WDARPA.pdf]

Commentary: “Destructive Competition” (March 3, 2021) (364 KB) [DC.pdf]

Commentary: “The Economics of Fear” (February 17, 2021) (218 KB) [TEF.pdf]

Essay: “Why Joe Biden Should Not Be President” (December 12, 2020) (254 KB) (WJBSNBP.pdf)

Report: “Black Boycott of Retail Sales Successful Again” (October 17, 2020; released January 1, 2020) (256 KB) [BBRSSA.pdf]

Commentary: “Forget Equality: Demand and Take Independence” (September 27, 2020; released January 1, 2021) (221 KB) [FEDTI.pdf]

Essay: “Never a Slave!” (September 14, 2020) (281 KB) [NAS.pdf]

Commentary: “Push Back: ‘A Contract with Black America: Addressing Racial Inequalities’” (August 5, 2020) (297 KB) (ICPB.pdf)

Commentary: “Revise the Narrative” (August 1, 2020; released January 1, 2021) (215 KB) (RTN.pdf)

Commentary: “Gathering the Dust.” (June 28, 2020) (223 KB) (GTD.pdf)

Commentary: “The Look of Change: Reparations, Separation, and Nation Formation” (June 13, 2020) (268 KB) (TLC.pdf)

Commentary: “Monologue on George Floyd’s Murder by Rob Robinson” (May 29, 2020) (260 KB) [MOGFM-RR.pdf]

Book Review: “From Here to Equality: Reparations for Black Americans in the Twenty-First Century” (May 10, 2020) (280 KB) [BR-FHTE.pdf]

Commentary: “USDS Likely to Trump SSS” (April 25, 2020) (233 KB) [USDSOVERSSS.pdf]

Commentary:  “Just Don’t Take It!”  (February 2, 2020)  (238 KB)  [JDTI.pdf]

Commentary:  “MLK’s Great Transformation:  How to Benefit”  (January 18, 2020)  (226 KB)  [MLKGT.pdf]

Essay:  “It’s All about Perspective:  Black America’s Nation Formation”  (January 11, 2020)  (265 KB)  [IAAPBANF.pdf]

Commentary:  “What Can Black America’s Current Cultural Capital Produce?”  (November 30, 2019)  (237 KB)  [WCBACCCP.pdf]

Commentary:  “Economic Litmus Test”  (November 9, 2019)  (189 KB)  [EL.pdf]

Commentary: “Census Tracts, Opportunity Zones, and Tax Breaks”  (July 27, 2019)  (278 KB) [CTOZTB.pdf]

Commentary:  “HR 40 and SB 1083: More Time, Money, and Direction”  (June 22, 2019)  (199 KB) [MTMD.pdf]

Commentary:  “Five Bites at the Rotting Apple”  (May 12, 2019)  (237 KB)  [FBATRA.pdf]

Commentary:  “No Longer a Credible Threat”  (January 21, 2019)  (220 KB)  [NLACT.pdf]

Commentary:  “No Donations without Revelations”  (November 10, 2018)  (86 KB)  [NDWR.pdf]

Report:  “Results of Bank Black Protest Actions”  (October 20, 2018)  (85 KB)  [ROBBPA.pdf]

Essay:  “Work Stoppage Protests”  (October 19, 2018)  (71 KB)  [WSP.pdf]

Essay:  “We Made a Difference”  (June 24, 2018)  (164 KB)  [WMD.pdf]

Essay:  “Have You Read the US Constitution?”  (January 29, 2018)  (99 KB)  [HYRUSC.pdf]

Commentary:  “Enlightening Black America”  (October 1, 2017)  (88 KB)  [EBA.pdf]

Commentary:  “A Better Mouse Trap”  (May 28, 2017)  (190 KB)  [ABMT.pdf}

Essay:  “The Black-White Wealth Gap is Greater Than You Think!”  (April 15, 2017)  (165 KB)  [NPISH.pdf]

Essay:  “Black America’s Trade Losses”  (December 11, 2016) (206 KB) [BTL.pdf]

Essay:  “Will US Black and White Household Incomes Ever Converge?”  (December 18, 2015)  (171 KB)  [WUBWHEC.pdf]

Essay:  “Is Expanding Entrepreneurship an Answer for US Afrodescendants Today?”  (December 7, 2015)  (174 KB)  [IEETA.pdf]

Report Brief:  “Black Americans: Happy with Life in US”  (September 25, 2015)  (196 KB) [BAHLUS.pdf]

Commentary:  “New Strategy for Resolving Baltimore’s Crisis” (April 24, 2015)  (131 KB)  [NSFRBC.pdf]

Research:  “A Broad Three-Point Reparations Program for US Afrodescendants Versus CARICOM’s 10-Point Program”  (March 25, 2015)  (204 KB)  [BTPRP.pdf]

Commentary:  “We’re A Nation, Not a Community.”  (September 5, 2014)  (148 KB)  [WANNC.pdf]

Commentary:  “What Can the CBC Do?”  (August 16,  2014) (75 KB)  [CBC.pdf]

Report Brief:  “22 Reasons Why Black Businesses Fail”  (August 1, 2014)  (111 KB)  [22REASONS.pdf]

Report Brief:  “Black America Doesn’t Benefit from the Nation’s Economic Growth”  (May 10, 2014)  (87 KB)  [BADNEG.pdf]

Commentary: “Fear May Cause Discrimination” (February 7, 2014) (116 KB) [FMCD.pdf]

Commentary:  “The Economics of Nonviolence:  Gandhi, King, and Mandela”  (December 13, 2013)  (75 KB)  [TENGKM.pdf]

Report Brief:  “Black Churches and College Scholarships” (October 1, 2013)  (77 KB) [BCCS.pdf]

Working Paper:  “Income Tax Compliance and the Black-White Disposable Income Gap”  (March 17, 2012)  (214 KB)  [ITCBWIG.pdf]

Working Paper:  “All it Takes is One”  (February 21, 2012)  (120 KB)  [AITIO.pdf]

Commentary:  “Those Who Make Nothing”  (November 5, 2011)  (56 KB)  [TWMN.pdf]

Working Paper:  “Why Do Inefficient Black Churches Survive?”  (January 2011)  (217 KB) [IBC.pdf]

Essay:  “The Marriage-Job Paradox”  (July 26, 2010)  (71 KB)  [TMJP.pdf]

Essay:  “Nation Formation: Part III”  (June 2010) (81 KB)  [NFIII.pdf]

Essay:  “Nation Formation: Part II”  (June 2010) (82 KB)  [NFII.pdf]

Essay:  “Nation Formation: Part I”  (June 2010) (82 KB)  [NFI.pdf]

Commentary:  “The Color Black”  (November 15, 2009)  (72 KB)  [TCB.pdf]

Commentary:  “The Impossibility of Equality without a Gift”  (November 7, 2009)  (72 KB)  [TIEWG.pdf]

Research:  “Why Do Blacks Live Where They Live?”  (July 19, 2009)  (79 KB)  [WDBLWTL.pdf]

Essay:  “MLK: Messianic or Satanic?”  (19 KB)  [MLK.pdf]

Working Paper:  “What Could Have Been: Macrosimulating the Economic Injury Caused by Desegregation”  (April 13, 2007)  (43 KB)  [MEICBD.pdf]

Working Paper:  “HBCU’s Institutional Advantage: Returns to Education”  (This paper was ultimately published as Chapter 13 in Understanding Minority-Serving Institutions, M. Gasman, B. Baez, and C. S. V. Turner, Editors, SUNY Press) (165 KB) [MSI.pdf]

Working Paper:  “Income Inequality and Ethnicity: An International View” (August 2002)  [IIE.pdf]

Article:  “Disparity in Present Value Net Social Security Wealth”  (1994) (13,008 KB) [BRSOCSEC.pdf]